The Science

Appetite and Satiety

1. Akhavan, T., et al. “Effect of Drinking Compared With Eating Sugars or Whey Protein on Short-Term Appetite and Food Intake.” International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 24 Aug. 2010, pp. 562-9.

2. Pal, Sebely and Vanessa Ellis. “The Acute Effects of Four Protein Meals on Insulin, Glucose, Appetite and Energy Intake in Lean Men.” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 8, 11 May 2010, pp. 1241-48.

3. Veldhorst, M. A., et al. “Dose-Dependent Satiating Effect of Whey Relative to Casein or Soy.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 96, no. 4-5, 23 Mar. 2009, pp. 675-82.

4. Forsythe-Pribanic, Cassandra. “The Whey to Appetite Control.”

Protein Less Insulin Release Than Carbs

5. Franz, Marion J. “Protein: Metabolism and Effect on Glucose and Insulin Levels.” The Diabetes Educator, vol. 23, no. 6, 1 Dec. 1997, pp. 643-6, 648, 650-1.

Faster Digestion and Absorption of Hydrolysate V. Intact Protein

6. Koopman, Rene, et al. “Ingestion of a Protein Hydrolysate is Accompanied by an Accelerated In Vivo Digestion and Absorption Rate When Compared With its Intact Protein.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 1, July 2009, pp. 106-15.

7. Gorissen, Stefan H. M., et al. “Carbohydrate Coingestion Delays Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Accretion.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 99, no. 6, 1 June 2014, pp. 2250-8.

Why Sugar Makes Us Sleepy (and Protein Wakes Us Up)

8. Lehrer, Jonah. “Why Sugar Makes Us Sleepy (and Protein Wakes Us Up).” Wired Magazine, 6 Dec. 2011.

9. Williams, Rhiannan H., et al. “Adaptive Sugar Sensors in Hypothalamic Feeding Circuits.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 33, 19 Aug. 2008, pp. 11975-80.

Satisfies Hunger—Eating Protein Boosts Hormones That Stave Off Hunger

10. Cell Press. “Eating Protein Boosts Hormone That Staves Off Hunger.” Science Daily. 6 Sept. 2006.

Optimizing Foods For Satiety

11. Chambers, Lucy, et al. “Optimising Foods For Satiety.” Trends in Food Science & Technology. Vol. 41, no. 2, Feb. 2015, pp. 149-160. ScienceDirect.

12. Pesta, Dominik H., and Varman T. Samuel. “A High-Protein Diet For Reducing Body Fat: Mechanisms and Possible Caveats.” Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond), vol. 11, no. 53, 19 Nov. 2014. BioMed Central.

Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

13. Westerterp, Klaas R. “Diet Induced Thermogenesis.” Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond), vol. 1, no. 5, 18 Aug. 2004. BioMed Central.

Diet-Induced Thermogenesis – Whey > Casein > Soy

14. Acheson, Kevin J., et al. “Protein Choices Targeting Thermogenesis and Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 3, March 2011, pp. 525-34.

Protein to Optimize Metabolic Roles of Amino Acids

15. Layman, Donald K., et al. “Defining Meal Requirements For Protein To Optimize Metabolic Roles of Amino Acids.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 6, 29 April 2015, pp. 1330S-1338S.

Proteins and Amino Acids 1999

16. Liberman, Harris R. “Protein and Amino Acids.” National Academy Press, 1999, pp. 289-307.

The Role of BCAAs in Reducing Central Fatigue

17. Blomstrand, Eva. “A Role For Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Reducing Central Fatigue.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 2, Feb. 2006, pp. 544S-547S.

18. Meeusen, Romain and Phil Watson. “Amino Acids and the Brain: Do They Play a Role in ‘Central Fatigue’?” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 17, Aug. 2007, pp. S37-46.

Metabolism and Weight Loss—How You Burn Calories

19. Mayo Clinic. “Metabolism and Weight Loss: How you Burn Calories.” 19 Sept. 2014.

Which Protein Is Best?

20. Hoffman, Jay R. and Michael J. Falvo. “Protein - Which is Best?” Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. 118-30.

Branch Chain Amino Acids and Fuels and Anabolic Signals in Human Muscle

21. Rennie, M.J., et al. “Branched-Chain Amino Acids as Fuels and Anabolic Signals in Human Muscle1-3.” The Journal Of Nutrition, vol. 136, suppl. 1, Jan 2006, pp. 264S-8S.

Fat Slows Protein Digestion

22. Bendtsen, Line Q., et al. “Effect of Dairy Proteins on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, Body Weight, and Composition: a Review of the Evidence from Controlled Clinical Trials1.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 4, July 2013, pp. 418-438.

Protein, Endorphins, and Brain Activity

23. Engelen, Marielle P., et al. “Supplementation of Soy Protein With Branched-Chain Amino Acids Alters Protein Metabolism in Healthy Elderly and Even More in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 2, Feb. 2007, pp. 431-9.

Low BCAAs in Soy Protein

24. Kalman, Douglas S. “Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.” Foods, vol. 3, no. 3, 30 June 2014, pp. 394-402.

Whey Protein in Cancer Prevention

25. Bounous, Gustavo, et al. “Whey Proteins in Cancer Prevention.” Cancer Letters, vol. 57, no. 2, 1 May 1991, pp. 91-94.

Biochemical Messengers From Protein in Your Stomach, Intestines, and Bloodstream

26. Halton, Thomas L. and Frank B. Hu. “The Effects of High Protein Diets on Thermogenesis, Satiety and Weight Loss: A Critical Review.” The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Supplement, vol. 23, no. 5, 2004 Oct., pp. 373-85.

Fats and Carbs Not Needed for Best Hunger-fighting Results for Protein

27. Veldhorst, M., et al. “Protein-Induced Satiety: Effects and Mechanisms of Different Proteins.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 94, no. 2, 23 May 2008, pp. 300-7.

Brain Response From High Protein Diets

28. Journel, Marion, et al. “Brain Responses to High-Protein Diets1,2.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 3, May 2012, pp. 322-9.

The Power of Protein to Optimize Brain Health

29. Roberts Stoler, Diane. “The Power of Protein to Optimize Brain Health.” Psychology Today, 9 June 2015.

Why Choose Whey Over Whole Milk, Caseins, Caseinates, Soy, Wheat, Hemp, Pea etc.

30. Acheson, Kevin J., et al. “Protein Choices Targeting Thermogenesis and Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 3, March 2011, pp. 525-34.

Repeated Meals With Whey For Best Effects

31. Dangin, Martial, et al. “The Digestion Rate of Protein is an Independent Regulating Factor of Postprandial Protein Retention.” American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 280, no. 2, 1 Feb. 2001, pp. E340-8.

Sipping On Whey Protein For Best Results

32. Akhavan, Tina, et al. “Mechanism of Action of Pre-Meal Consumption of Whey Protein on Glycemic Control in Young Adults.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 36-43.

33. Akhavan, Tina, et al. “The Effect of a Premeal Consumption of Whey Protein and its Hydrolysate on Food Intake and Postmeal Glycemia and Insulin Responses in Young Adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 4, 15 Jan 2010, pp. 966-75.

34. Dangin, Martial, et al. “The Digestion Rate of Protein is an Independent Regulating Factor of Postprandial Protein Retention.” American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 280, no. 2, 1 Feb 2001, pp. E340-E348.

35. Zafar T A et al. “Whey Protein Sweetened Beverages Reduce Glycemic and Appetite Responses and Food Intake in Young Females.” Nutrition Research, vol. 33, no. 4, 2013 April, pp. 303-10.

Protein and Tyrosine for Alertness

36. Lieberman, Harris R., et al., “The Behavioral Effects of Food Constituents: Strategies Used In Studies of Amino Acids, Protein, Carbohydrate And Caffeine.” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 44, no. S3, May 1986, pp. 61-70.

BCAAs Galore. A Primer on BCAAs.

37. Sowers, Starkie. “A Primer on Branched Chain Amino Acids.” Smart Supplementation, 2009. Huntington College of Health Sciences.

Protein Quality

38. “Protein Quality.” See Wikipedia.

Casein and Cancer

39. Park, Sung-Woo, et al. “A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells.” The World Journal Men’s Health, vol. 32, no. 2, 26 Aug. 2014, pp. 76-82.

Tripping Your Brain’s Happy Triggers

40. Chandrashekar, Jayaram, et al. “The Taste of Carbonation.” Science, vol. 326, no. 5951, 16 Oct. 2009, pp. 443-5.

All You Ever Needed to Know About Whey Protein and More

41. Madureira, Ana R., et al. “Bovine Whey Proteins – Overview on Their Main Biological Properties.” Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, 3 Aug. 2007.

Whey Protein Hydrolysate for Faster Digestion, Absorption, and Better Nitrogen Retention

42. Boirie, Yves, et al. “Slow and Fast Dietary Proteins Differently Modulate Postprandial Protein Accretion.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 26, Dec. 1997, pp. 14930-5.

43. Poullain, M.G., et al. “Effects of Whey Proteins, Their Oligopeptide Hydrolysates and Free Amino Acid Mixtures on Growth and Nitrogen Retention in Fed and Starved Rats.” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 4, 1 July 1989, pp. 382-6.

Whey Protein Helps Improve the Body’s Immune System

44. Sadler R. “The Benefits of Dietary Whey Protein Concentrate on the Immune Response and Health.” South African Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 24, no. 2, 24 Nov 1992, pp. 53-8.

Whey Protein May Improve Bone Health

45. Takada, Y., et al. “Whey Protein Stimulated the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 223, no. 2, 14 June 1996, pp. 445-9.

Appetite and Whey-Induced Satiety Not Dependent Upon Glycomacropeptide (GMP) or Caseinomacropeptide (CMP)

46. Burton-Freeman, Britt M., et al. “Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is Not Critical to Whey-Induced Satiety, But May Have a Unique Role in Energy Intake Regulation Through Cholecystokinin (CCK).” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 93, no. 1-2, 2008 Jan, pp. 379-87.

47. Gustafson, D. R. et al. “Appetite is Not Influenced by a Unique Milk Peptide: Caseinomacropeptide (CMP).” Appetite, vol. 36, no. 2, 2001 April, pp. 157-63.

Satiety Results – Drinks or Solid Food Makes No Difference

48. Almiron-Roig, Eva, et al. “No Difference in Satiety or Subsequent Energy Intakes Between a Beverage and a Solid Food.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 82, no. 4, 30 Sept 2004, pp.671-7.

How Drinks Can Work to Help Keep You Healthy

49. Wolf, A., et al. “A Short History of Beverages and How Our Body Treats Them.” Obesity Reviews, vol. 9, 2008, pp. 151-64.

How Amino Acids in Food and Drinks Increase Brain Power

50. Lieberman, Harris R. “The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance.” National Academies Press, sec. 14, 1999, pp. 289-307.

51. Yudkoff, M., et al. “Brain Amino Acid Requirements and Toxicity: The Example of Leucine.” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 8, 2009 Aug.

Food Label Warning and Notice

52. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services, part 101.7(d)(3).